The value of potential marine protected areas in the UK to divers and sea anglers

Project description: 

This research aimed to elicit values of cultural ecosystem services of UK sea anglers and divers for Marine Protected Areas (MPA) in England, Scotland and Wales. Through a combination of monetary and subjective wellbeing indicators, the use values and non-use values of 22 Scottish, 120 English and 7 Welsh MPAs were assessed. Cultural ecosystem service benefits that were assessed included recreational, aesthetic, spiritual, educational, health, identity, social bonding, sense of place, and existence values for marine biodiversity. Data was gathered using an online questionnaire. The questionnaire included a monetary valuation section, a mapping section to establish visit numbers to potential MPA sites, and a non-monetary valuation section consisting of subjective wellbeing questions. 15 non-monetary, subjective well-being indicators were developed based on a wide range of literature sources on cultural ecosystem services. They were linked to the mapping section, so participants could directly associate their answers with specific sites.

Organisations involved: 

University of Aberdeen

Scale of project: 
Marine Protected Areas in England, Scotland and Wales
Special purposes of project: 
Map economic values of ecosystem services
Map social/cultural values
What ecosystem service classification was used?: 


Which ecosystem services were focused on?: 

  • Aesthetic/inspiration
  • Sense of place/heritage
  • Education
  • Health and well-being
  • Recreation/tourism
  • Spiritual/religious
Habitats mapped for ecosystem services: 
Coastal margins
Baseline data: 
Habitat or land cover
Human census
Contact name: 
Jasper Kenter
Contact job title: 
Ecological Economist
Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS)
01631 559216