Ecosystem services is a term now used to describe the range of things the environment does for people. Other people refer to them as nature's benefits. They range from reducing flood risk to providing opportunities for recreation.
Assessing and measuring ecosystem services
- A practical guide to ecosystem service assessment has been published by the Institution of Environmental Sciences. This contains information on what ecosystem services are, and how to go about assessing them.
- The TESSA toolkit provides guidance on how to measure and monitor ecosystem services at the site scale, and was developed by Anglia Ruskin University, BirdLife International, Cambridge University, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds and UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre. The toolkit measures ecosystem services at specific sites and assesses changes that might occur as a result of management decisions. In 2011, Natural England published a scoping study to identify and comment upon existing data sources that might be suitable for monitoring change in ecosystem service delivery as a result of management changes.
- A Natural England report, Mapping values: the vital nature of our uplands, contains examples of data that can be used as proxy indicators of ecosystem service provision.
Mapping ecosystem services
Mapping ecosystem services helps people to understand and communicate the full spectrum of ways in which the natural environment contributes to people's well being. Ecosystem services can be portrayed spatially at all scales, from the local (such as within a local authority district) to nationally (as occurred in the UK National Ecosystem Assessment).
See our Tool Assessor service for links to analytical tools that map ecosystem services.
Some useful examples of published ecosystem service maps are:
- Maps of ecosystem services in Aberdeenshire and the Scottish Borders, undertaken as part of pilot projects for the first Land Use Strategy for Scotland.
- Natural England's maps of ten ecosystem services for all of England. A case study of ecosystem service mapping for the South Downs (Southern England) is included.
- An Ecosystem Service Mapping Gateway has been developed by the NERC Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Directorate, with funding from Natural England. This map and database contains information on the growing number of ecosystem service mapping projects across the UK.
Guidance on the value of mapping and how to do it
- The Living with Environmental Change Programme (now known as the Ride Forum) produced a note on Locating and measuring nature’s benefits. It offers guidance on what mapping tools exist and what they can be used for.
- In 2012, the Joint Nature Conservation Committee has published a report on the spatial mapping of ecosystem services. Using existing datasets, and tested on terrestrial and marine habitats around the UK, it has developed an ecosystem service ‘spatial framework’ to show what is currently possible when it comes to mapping and modelling.
- Natural Resources Wales commissioned a study to explore how ecosystem goods and services can be modelled, and how mapping can be applied to spatial policy objectives to identify trade-offs and benefits. More information is in this on line presentation.
Network activities on ecosystem service mapping
The Network has organised two workshops on this topic:
- Mapping ecosystem services, Sheffield, November 2012. This event was organised in association with Durham Wildlife Trust. Videos of the presentations are available (follow the link).
- Putting nature's services on the map, Oxford, April 2013. Organised in association with Oxfordshire's Nature Partnership. This event focused on applications for ecosystem service maps in local government.
Examples of projects involved in the Network that have been addressing this theme are:
- Ecosystems Interactions on the Somerset Levels.
- Birmingham City Council has produced ecosystem service maps as part of its Green Living Spaces Plan.
- A suite of Green Infrastructure Plans were developed in Hertfordshire, using a methodology which incorporated ecosystem services. A report summarises the findings on supply of and demand for the functionality/benefits/ecosystems services that GI provides and provides the plans and proposed initiatives.
Data and information to support the production of maps
A separate page is available on access to environmental data that may be used in ecosystem service mapping.